No Rio, pobres e favelados são os mais afetados por altas temperaturas 3.891

Em um dia de calor exorbitante no Rio de Janeiro, possivelmente você vai encontrar um vídeo circulando na web de alguém tentando fritar um ovo em alguma rua na região periférica da cidade. Ou vai ouvir alguém dizer de forma irônica: “O maçarico tá ligado!”, em alusão a sensação térmica. Qualquer sombra embaixo de uma árvore é um oásis. Nos ônibus, vale de tudo para tentar se refrescar: água, picolé, sacolé e até um mini ventilador que funciona com pilhas palitos.

No dia 25 de fevereiro de 2020, o sistema Alerta Rio, da Prefeitura do Rio de Janeiro, registrou uma temperatura de 37,7°C, às 12h30, na estação meteorológica em Santa Cruz, zona oeste da cidade. Minutos antes, a sensação térmica foi de 55,4°C, o maior recorde de calor no ano. Antes, o maior registro tinha sido de 54,8°C, no dia 11 de janeiro, também na estação Santa Cruz.

Temperaturas e sensações térmicas são uma marca do verão carioca, mas também podem ser afetadas pelas mudanças climáticas, ocasionadas pela queima de combustíveis fósseis, o descarte de lixo e o desmatamento, o que gera  grande quantidade de gases que causam o efeito estufa, fenômeno que torna o planeta mais quente. Em 2019, por exemplo, durante a primavera, as máximas mensais registradas pelo sistema Alerta Rio chegaram a marcas que pareceriam características do verão. Foram 41,6ºC em setembro (Irajá, zona norte), 39,9ºC em outubro (Guaratiba, zona oeste e Irajá, zona norte) e 41,8ºC em novembro (Santa Cruz, zona oeste). 

Os termômetros cariocas podem estar acompanhando a tendência do aumento da temperatura global, fenômeno que merece estudos detalhados. De acordo com a Agência Oceânica e Atmosférica Americana (NOAA), janeiro de 2020 foi considerado o período mais quente da história. Já a Organização Meteorológica Mundial (OMM) afirma que a última década (2010-2019) registrou as mais altas temperaturas já obtidas. Desde os anos 80, cada década é mais quente que a anterior por causa dos níveis recordes de gases de efeito estufa que retêm o calor na atmosfera. O secretário-geral da OMM, Petteri Taalas, avalia que na trajetória atual, o mundo caminha para um aumento de temperatura e espera por extremos climáticos nas próximas décadas.

Sentindo na pele

A estudante de Cinema Amanda Domingues, de 22 anos, mora em Bangu, na zona oeste da cidade. No dia em que a cidade registrou a maior sensação térmica do ano no bairro vizinho de Santa Cruz, ela manteve o ar condicionado ligado desde a tarde até a manhã do dia seguinte. “Como não posso deixar ligado o dia inteiro, as vezes eu vou caminhar no shopping e aproveitar o ar condicionado. Em casa, fico o dia inteiro com ventilador ligado e tomo vários banhos com água gelada ao longo do dia, apesar que tem hora que a água fica quente por causa do calor”, conta Amanda Domingues ao lembrar que para ir até a praia mais próxima de casa, na Barra da Tijuca, é necessário pegar até 4 ônibus.

O contato com a natureza é feito na Cachoeira do Mendanha, em Campo Grande e Cachoeira da Taquara, em Duque de Caxias, muito visitadas por moradores dessas regiões. Um levantamento feito em 2009 pela companhia de limpeza da cidade, a COMLURB, contabilizou 28.773 árvores em Bangu. Em 2015, o Plano Diretor de Arborização Urbana da cidade, apontou que faltava plantar mais de 23 mil árvores na região. Entre o período de 2007 a 2013, a Fundação Parques e Jardins do Rio de Janeiro realizou o plantio de 3.329 mudas no bairro.

Atualmente, a região ainda aparece como um dos bairros com menores percentuais de áreas verdes do município. A Sociedade Brasileira de Arborização Urbana (SBAU) recomenda o plantio de pelo menos uma árvore por habitante, para que as pessoas possam ter bem-estar, lazer, isolamento acústico, entre outros benefícios.  Bangu tem 215 mil habitantes, o que representa aproximadamente uma relação de 7 pessoas por árvore. A quantidade de árvores deveria ser pelo menos 6 vezes maior.

Crianças se refrescam no bairro de São Cristóvão, para amenizar, a onda de calor que atinge o clima no Rio de Janeiro. Foto Fernando Frazão/Agência Brasil

A vegetação é um importante controlador da temperatura e da sua sensação. Para fazer a fotossíntese, as plantas capturam calor. Nesse processo, a água capturada pelas raízes das plantas evapora e isso diminui a temperatura ambiente. As árvores também fazem o sombreamento de locais que concentram muito calor e aquecem as superfícies, como as ruas de asfalto e as calçadas de cimento. Onde há sombras, as superfícies liberam menos calor de volta para o ambiente. 

Não à toa, as mínimas registradas pelo Alerta Rio são quase sempre no Alto da Boa Vista, região da cidade extremamente arborizada, onde fica a floresta da Tijuca, além do fator “altitude” que também contribui para o decréscimo da temperatura. 

A analista comercial Tatiana Marques, 46 anos, optou há 2 anos por morar no Jardim Botânico, na zona sul, por ser um lugar calmo e arborizado. O bairro tem dois pontos turísticos bastante arborizados da cidade: o Parque Lage e o Jardim Botânico. Somente em relação às árvores da área visitável do Jardim Botânico, são 7.761 espécimes, sendo, aproximadamente, 14 árvores por metro quadrado. Uma média de 2 pessoas por árvore no bairro levando em consideração apenas a área visitável do Jardim Botânico. Embora ela não sinta o calor excessivo no bairro, ela comprou dois ventiladores para amenizar o calor. “Aqui é bem diferente se compararmos com Copacabana, por exemplo, eu trabalho lá e sinto muito a diferença de temperaturas por ser totalmente abafado pelos prédios altos”, explica Tatiana Marques. 

As diferenças são nítidas ao percorrer os bairros de Bangu e do Jardim Botânico. O bairro do Jardim Botânico, na zona sul da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, contém um dos melhores IDH municipal, atingindo 0,959; enquanto Bangu, na zona oeste, obteve 0,742, em análise feita pelo Atlas de Desenvolvimento Humano no Brasil. De acordo com o IBGE, 18 mil pessoas vivem com renda média familiar no Jardim Botânico de R$ 6.098. Em Bangu, esse valor cai para R$ 653, cerca de 89% menor do que no Jardim Botânico. Ali vivem aproximadamente 95 mil pessoas, cinco vezes mais que no Jardim Botânico.

Uma via principal arborizada, a Rua Jardim Botânico, se estende por todo o bairro, fazendo a ligação com outros bairros vizinhos e de acesso à zona oeste da cidade. Diferente de Bangu, a maioria das moradias no Jardim Botânico são apartamentos em prédios que variam de três a dez andares, com exceção da região do Horto, que concentra casas mais antigas, datadas de 1800. Ao caminhar pelo  bairro, percebe-se que muitos moradores aproveitam as varandas para cultivarem plantas. Os condomínios buscam preservar as árvores que existem próximo aos portões. De acordo com a Prefeitura do Rio, o número de imóveis residenciais chegou a 7 mil em 2018, dez vezes a menos do que registrado em Bangu, com 70 mil imóveis residenciais.

Mapa termal, também conhecido como Temperatura da Superfície Continental

Em 2018, as temperaturas médias locais dos bairros dos entrevistados teve uma diferença de 11,3°C. No Jardim Botânico, a temperatura média local no ano foi 28,1°C, enquanto em Bangu, atingiu 39,4°C. Os mapas termais anteriores a 2018 podem ser vistos no Climatologia. (ver imagem abaixo de 2018)

Crédito da imagem de satélite: Climatologia/Dep. Geografia – UFRuralRJ

Cerca de 21 favelas estão distribuídas por Bangu, mas só 4 aparecem no Sistema de Assentamento de Baixa Renda (SABREN). Nesses espaços, as habitações têm baixa capacidade de dissipar energia  porque são confeccionadas com materiais de baixa resistência térmica, como analisou o pesquisador Andrews Lucena, do departamento de Geografia da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, em sua tese de Doutorado e outras publicações. Outras características como a falta de acabamento externo da casa e de ventilação agravam o estresse térmico. O pesquisador analisa que “é importante que as obras de infraestrutura e urbanização nos bairros periféricos, e favelas, contemplem a arborização como uma estratégia de mitigação ao estresse térmico”. 

Em uma cidade desigual como o Rio de Janeiro, as pessoas com melhores condições financeiras têm mais alternativas para o enfrentamento do calor e os efeitos são diferentes. É o que pensa Andréia Coutinho, coordenadora de comunicação do Instituto Clima e Sociedade e mestre em Relações Étnico-raciais, ao apontar que o combate ao calor também é uma questão de privilégio. “As políticas precisam ser vistas sob a ótica ambiental, econômica e social. Climatização adequada é uma medida de adaptação e resiliência. O conforto térmico ajuda a melhorar rendimento escolar, reduz picos de doenças, etc. O programa Minha Casa Minha Vida, por exemplo, tem muitas construções claustrofóbicas, com péssimas condições de ventilação, materiais que tornam as casas verdadeiras estufas”, analisa Coutinho.

Nos dias com altas temperaturas, o estresse térmico afeta Amanda Domingues de tal modo que provoca cansaço sem ela ter feito nada. “Esse calor extremo dá uma agonia porque você toma banho, fica na frente do ventilador, bebe muita água e não dá vontade de fazer nada. Me sinto sugada pelo calor. Ainda bem que estou de férias porque quando eu vou pra faculdade preciso pegar quatro transportes. É horrível porque o transporte no Rio de Janeiro não tem climatização”, lamenta ela. Em 2019, a Prefeitura do Rio autorizou o reajuste de passagem nos ônibus municipais de R$ 3,95 para R$ 4,05 sob acordo de que as empresas teriam de equipar ar condicionado em todos os carros até setembro de 2020. O Sindicato das Empresas de Ônibus da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro informou que já cumpriu a meta de 80% de coletivos climatizados na frota da cidade, entretanto, a climatização integral dos ônibus só será feita após o reajuste anual da tarifa.

“As políticas precisam ser vistas sob a ótica ambiental, econômica e social. Climatização adequada é uma medida de adaptação e resiliência.”

Andréia Coutinho, coordenadora de comunicação do Instituto Clima e Sociedade e mestre em Relações Étnico-raciais

O calor intenso também gera o aumento de doenças respiratórias, como sinusite, amigdalite, gripes em geral, asma e até pneumonia. A temperatura média do corpo é em torno de 36,5°C. Podem ocorrer riscos de morte caso a temperatura do corpo ultrapasse 42°C. As altas temperaturas podem ter consequências mais graves que as mais frias.. A intensidade do calor também provoca desidratação em crianças e idosos, que são a população mais vulnerável, segundo o Ministério da Saúde. Aumenta também o consumo de água e energia elétrica, devido ao uso do ar-condicionado, o que pode sobrecarregar a rede elétrica e ocasionar queda de energia por uso excessivo. A família de Amanda gasta R$ 800 por mês com a conta de energia por causa do uso contínuo de ar condicionado e R$ 200 com a conta de água. Isso representa 13% da renda familiar dela.

Já no caso de Tatiana, que mora no Jardim Botânico, as temperaturas amenas contribuem para o bem-estar dela. Portadora de rinite, ela descobriu a doença recentemente após perceber que o problema acontecia com a mudança de temperaturas na cidade. Ela optou por se tratar em casa por meios próprios ao invés de ir ao médico. Ela mora em uma rua que fica há 10 minutos de uma trilha no Parque Nacional da Tijuca. No verão, a conta de energia da analista comercial custa 3 vezes mais do que o comum em outras épocas do ano.

O Rio nas próximas décadas

As projeções das mudanças climáticas já vêm sendo analisadas desde 1996 pelo Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE). Os dados apontam para cenários que poderão acontecer através de diferentes níveis de concentração de gás carbônico, um dos causadores do efeito estufa. Estima-se que a temperatura máxima diária será de 35,5°C entre 2011 e 2040, subindo para 37°C de 2041 a 2070 e atingindo 38,6°C a partir de 2071. Os pesquisadores afirmam que as ondas de calor vão durar mais tempo. As ondas de calor acontecem no período de alguns dias com temperaturas máximas superiores à média usual para a época.

Cidade de inspiração para os governantes cariocas, Medellín, na Colômbia, vem adotando estratégias para regular as altas temperaturas. As autoridades da cidade colombiana transformaram 18 ruas e 12 hidrovias em corredores verdes, o que permitiu reduzir o acúmulo de calor na infraestrutura urbana. Essa experiência deve ser aplicada no Rio de Janeiro em 2020. Segundo o coordenador-geral do Escritório de Planejamento, Daniel Mancebo, a prefeitura está mapeando as coberturas arbóreas da cidade e identificando as áreas que possuem menores e maiores sombreamento para decidir onde serão implantados os corredores verdes no Rio. A Pavuna é um dos bairros identificados como prioritário na criação de corredores verdes. “Nós temos um estudo bem detalhado que mostra essas áreas e estamos classificando as áreas mais prioritárias para criarmos as ilhas de frescor urbano que é um conceito que outras cidades vem trabalhando para reduzir as sensações de calor”, explica Daniel Mancebo.

Para chegar nos territórios mais vulneráveis, como favelas e periferias, a prefeitura decidiu ouvir a comunidade escolar. De acordo com a Secretaria Municipal de Educação, existem 1.540 unidades escolares em funcionamento, atendendo mais de 620 mil alunos. “Nós estamos fazendo um grande esforço de ir a esses territórios de todo o município e ouvir a comunidade escolar. Os responsáveis vão discutir esses assuntos relacionados a sustentabilidade, ao desenvolvimento sustentável, ao planejamento da cidade para colocar as contribuições. Então, nesse sentido, nós não estamos tendo muitas dificuldades. Pelo contrário, é uma oportunidade que temos de ouvir diferentes áreas da cidade”, conta Daniel Mancebo.

Outro modo de tentar trazer a população para discutir o planejamento da cidade foi a criação da plataforma Participa.Rio, onde os cidadãos podem dar sugestões para a construção do Plano de Desenvolvimento Sustentável do município. O plano reúne compromissos e documentos estabelecidos nos últimos 20 anos para a construção do futuro do município, alinhado aos Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável da Organização das Nações Unidas.

*Edição de texto por Jéssica Mota (Énois). Infográfico por Michel Silva. Fotos: Hector Santos e Fernando Frazão

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